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【引用】何新:西方确实伪造了希腊历史  

2011-12-23 20:19:31|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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粗略介绍老何看法:西方确实伪造了希腊历史

 
昨天本博转发了国外洋葱讽刺网的一篇文章,揭露西方统治势力曾经指使学者伪造希腊历史,为希腊民主制度整容。

这里介绍一下一下何新对此问题的看法。老何说:
这篇文章揭露的根本不够。西方近代资本主义文明的根,本来就不是希腊的宗教文化而是犹太的宗教和金钱崇拜文化。这方面可以看两个犹太学者韦伯(论证过新教的希伯来渊源)与波普(曾经大骂希腊文明)的书。中国自由主义很膜拜这两个犹太自由主义学者,但是看来对他们的书没有认真地读。


原生希腊人是黑头发黑眼睛的人种,与古埃及人(黄种人)接近。而与北欧那种黄头发、蓝眼睛、满身长毛的哥特——日耳曼——盎格鲁撒克逊人根本不搭界。
事实上,古希腊人与古代罗马人都认为北欧、西欧那些白色人是没有进入文明的野蛮人——蛮族。而就是这些希腊罗马人眼中的“蛮族”,在种族上才是现代西方多数欧美人的祖宗。


老何说,希腊有很多城邦,多数不实行城邦“民主”制度。
雅典的城邦民主是保留氏族血缘社会时代氏族民主的残余——不是什么先进制度。中国先夏时代——尧舜禹传说时代也是实施这种氏族民主——“选贤与能”。这方面可以看《礼运》和《墨子》。

古代希腊真正的强国,不是雅典而是铁血集权之国斯巴达,一个君主国,斯巴达后来征服了雅典 。
最后统一大希腊的是马其顿的国王菲利普,他的儿子就是征服者亚历山大。

所谓伯利克里的民主希腊,在很大程度上是一个毫无实证支持的意识形态的虚构神话。
休昔底德的《伯罗奔尼撒战争史》也经过文艺复兴学者和近代英国人的篡改,并不是流传有序谱牒分明的原作。对中国典籍有疑古考证癖好的(胡适和顾派)中国学者,一向对中国古代典籍吹毛求疵——为什么不认真考一考所谓荷马的史诗——充满神话;为什么不考一考希罗多德、休昔底德的历史著作的真伪?

最有意思的是,希腊哲学的伟大三圣贤——苏格拉底、柏拉图、亚里士多德,都是彻头彻尾反对雅典的氏族民主制度的。
苏格拉底因此,被雅典人用一人一票的投票表决而强迫饮下毒酒死去。
柏拉图主张建立理想国——由一个贤明的哲学国王治国。
亚里士多德的政治名言是:多头决策不好,民主不如独裁(这个话肯定让自由派发疯,但亚氏确实说过类似的话)。
所以:认为“希腊精神代表民主精神”(顾准的说法),“民主政治代表先进政治制度”的说法是完全不符合真实的希腊史的。中国学术界有必要摆脱西方近代输入的定见,对此问题重新审视和思考。

此外,认为雅典民主制度代表希腊主流文明的说法,也不符合真实的希腊历史。

伪造希腊历史的人,最早是所谓文艺复兴时代的威尼斯、佛罗伦萨的城市独立共和国。这些共和国是犹太银行家——中世纪的犹太共济会控制的。当时,他们需要制造一个古代民主共和国的样板为他们的独立自治城市共和国找到历史根据。
后来,则是18世纪反对王政和教皇的英国人和20世纪冷战时代的西方学者。

老何说,我讲这些是有来自西方自己的充分史料和考古根据的。但先粗略谈谈,这并不是考证,考证以后慢慢做。

Historians Admit To Inventing Ancient Greeks

OCTOBER 7, 2010 | ISSUE 46?40

Scholars apologize for attributing Western democracy to a make-believe civilization.

WASHINGTON—A group of leading historians held a press conference Monday at the National Geographic Society to announce they had "entirely fabricated" ancient Greece, a culture long thought to be the intellectual basis of Western civilization.

The group acknowledged that the idea of a sophisticated, flourishing society existing in Greece more than two millennia ago was a complete fiction created by a team of some two dozen historians, anthropologists, and classicists who worked nonstop between 1971 and 1974 to forge "Greek" documents and artifacts.

"Honestly, we never meant for things to go this far," said Professor Gene Haddlebury, who has offered to resign his position as chair of Hellenic Studies at Georgetown University. "We were young and trying to advance our careers, so we just started making things up: Homer, Aristotle, Socrates, Hippocrates, the lever and fulcrum, rhetoric, ethics, all the different kinds of columns—everything."

Enlarge ImageJust one of the "ancient" artifacts dreamed up in a basement in Somerville, MA.

"Way more stuff than any one civilization could have come up with, obviously," he added.

According to Haddlebury, the idea of inventing a wholly fraudulent ancient culture came about when he and other scholars realized they had no idea what had actually happened in Europe during the 800-year period before the Christian era.

Frustrated by the gap in the record, and finding archaeologists to be "not much help at all," they took the problem to colleagues who were then scrambling to find a way to explain where things such as astronomy, cartography, and democracy had come from.

Within hours the greatest and most influential civilization of all time was born.

"One night someone made a joke about just taking all these ideas, lumping them together, and saying the Greeks had done it all 2,000 years ago," Haddlebury said. "One thing led to another, and before you know it, we're coming up with everything from the golden ratio to the Iliad."

"That was a bitch to write, by the way," he continued, referring to the epic poem believed to have laid the foundation for the Western literary tradition. "But it seemed to catch on."

Around the same time, a curator at the Smithsonian reportedly asked for Haddlebury's help: The museum had received a sizeable donation to create an exhibit on the ancient world but "really didn't have a whole lot to put in there." The historians immediately set to work, hastily falsifying evidence of a civilization that— complete with its own poets and philosophers, gods and heroes—would eventually become the centerpiece of schoolbooks, college educations, and the entire field of the humanities.

Emily Nguyen-Whiteman, one of the young academics who "pulled a month's worth of all-nighters" working on the project, explained that the whole of ancient Greek architecture was based on buildings in Washington, D.C., including a bank across the street from the coffee shop where they met to "bat around ideas about mythology or whatever."

"We picked Greece because we figured nobody would ever go there to check it out," Nguyen-Whiteman said. "Have you ever seen the place? It's a dump. It's like an abandoned gravel pit infested with cats."

She added, "Inevitably, though, people started looking around for some of this 'ancient' stuff, and next thing I know I'm stuck in Athens all summer building a goddamn Parthenon just to cover our tracks."

Nguyen-Whiteman acknowledged she was also tasked with altering documents ranging from early Bibles to the writings of Thomas Jefferson to reflect a "Classical Greek" influence—a task that also included the creation, from scratch, of a language based on modern Greek that could pass as its ancient precursor.

Historians told reporters that some of the so-called Greek ideas were in fact borrowed from the Romans, stripped to their fundamentals, and then attributed to fictional Greek predecessors. But others they claimed as their own.

"Geometry? That was all Kevin," said Haddlebury, referring to former graduate student Kevin Davenport. "Man, that kid was on fire in those days. They teach Davenportian geometry in high schools now, though of course they call it Euclidean."

Sources confirmed that long hours and lack of sleep took their toll on Davenport, and after the lukewarm reception of his work on homoeroticism in Spartan military, he left the group.

In a statement expressing their "profound apologies" for misleading the world on the subject of antiquity for almost 40 years, the historians expressed hope that their work would survive on its own merits.

"It would be a shame to see humanity abandon achievements such as heliocentrism and the plays of Aeschylus just because of their origin," the statement read in part. "Moreover, we have some rather disappointing things to tell you about the pyramids, the works of Leonardo da Vinci, penicillin, the Internet, the scientific method, movies, and dogs."网文:共济会为支持西方民主冒认和伪造希腊文明 - wanshi - 何新网易博客

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